Paths > 

Main content


If you are interested in finding out more on exactly who did what to produce our somewhat monumental website, you will find all this information below, along with relevant links to our contributors’ websites.


All of these articles, and more generally, all of the original texts on our website, are © The Tolkien Estate Limited. For more information on this, please refer to our Terms and Conditions page.

We suspect that scholars and passionate fans of the author's works may have little need for the information provided on our website (although we do expect they will find a few surprises!), and the articles, while each written by a specialist on the subject, were requested to be written with the aim of presenting the works in a simple manner, attractive to a general audience, who might have no prior knowledge of the subject.

Follows a more detailed presentation of the authors of our articles, whose contributions we are extremely pleased to make available on our website. In alphabetical order:

David Bratman, former editor of Mythprint magazine, and co-editor of Tolkien Studies, wrote the article on The History of Middle-earth, as well as our survey of studies published in English on J.R.R. Tolkien.

Leo Carruthers, Professor in English Medieval Studies at Paris-Sorbonne University, director of the Center For Medieval English Studies (CEMA), has published on Beowulf and Middle English Breton Lays, on Chaucer, on Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the late medieval religious allegory Everyman, and is editor of the collective volume Tolkien et le Moyen Age, along with numerous articles mainly on medieval literature, religion, and cultural identities. On our website, you will find his article: Understanding Beowulf.

Patrick Curry who wrote for us the article on Tolkien and Nature, writes for the Times Literary Supplement among other newspapers and journals. Following Defending Middle-earth he published Deep Roots in a Time of Frost: Essays on Tolkien (Walking Tree Publishers, 2014).

Nadia Drici holds a PhD (Aix-en-Provence, France) in comparative literature. A specialist in magical realism and postcolonial literature, she is also a researcher in the anthropology of beliefs. She wrote one of the three articles studying differing aspects of Leaf by Niggle as well as the presentations for our Galleries.

Vincent Ferré, is Professor in comparative literature and theory in Paris (Créteil University - Paris Est), he has extensively published on J.R.R. Tolkien – six books and numerous articles, as well as translations – and medieval studies, his main field being the works of Marcel Proust and other modernist writers. Particularly for our website, he wrote the articles on Translating Tolkien, Leaf by Niggle: Hidden Nucleus, The Lord of the Rings, an adventure story?, among other contributions, most notably his invaluable contribution to our FAQ. He also carried out, in 2003, the discussion with Christian Bourgois, the French publisher of Tolkien's works, extracts of which we are pleased to publish on our website.

Verlyn Flieger is the editor of the annotated editions of Smith of Wootton Major; and On Fairy-stories (with Douglas Anderson), and was therfore perfectly suited to write the articles presenting these works. She also assisted in the primary organization and selection of content, and her contribution was invaluable to our (forthcoming) article on biographies of J.R.R. Tolkien, as well as to our modest Glossary. She is co-editor of Tolkien Studies, and among the books she has published we would like to mention in particular Splintered Light, A Question of Time, and Interrupted Music.

Dr. Nicole Guedeney, child-psychiatrist practising in Paris (Institut Mutualiste Montsouris), and French specialist on John Bowlby's Attachment Theory, is the author of L’attachement : un lien vital (2010) and, with Antoine Guédeney, L’attachement : approche théorique. She supplied for our website the indispensable article on The Lord of the Rings read in the light of John Bowlby's Attachment Theory.

Thomas Honegger is Professor of English Medieval Studies at the Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena (Germany), and a publisher (Walking Tree Publishers). He is the author of From Phoenix to Chauntecleer: Medieval English Animal Poetry, and has edited several books of essays on Old and Middle-English language and literature, as well as on J.R.R. Tolkien's works; he has also written about Chaucer, Shakespeare, and medieval romance. For our website, he wrote the article on The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth.

Carl Hostetter is a founding member of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship and editor of Parma Eldalamberon and Vinyar Tengwar, two journals dedicated to Tolkienian linguistics. In 2000 he co-edited Tolkien’s Legendarium: Essays on the History of Middle-earth. You will find his article here on J.R.R. Tolkien's Elvish languages.

Daniel Lauzon is a Quebecois translator living in Montreal, and has been working on J.R.R. Tolkien for fifteen years. Among other works, he has published translations into French of three volumes of The History of Middle-earth as well as the new authoritative translations of The Hobbit (Le Hobbit, 2012) and The Lord of the Rings (Le Seigneur des Anneaux, 2014-2016). For our website, he wrote the article on J.R.R. Tolkien’s poetry, and more specifically The Adventures of Tom Bombadil.

Maxime Hortense Pascal, is a writer and poet. Her literary works encompass novels as well as diverse poetic genres; she also works with choreographers, musicians, and visual artists, and has brought her writing to the live stage. Among her published works: Never ; L'Invention de la soif ; Point typographique délaissé... She wrote specifically for our website a personal and poetic appreciation on Reading Tolkien.

John D. Rateliff, is a writer, an editor, a designer of role-playing games and the author of The History of the Hobbit ; his research also bears on Lord Dunsany (PhD, Marquette) and he co-edited a volume in honor of Tom Shippey (2014). You may read on the website his article retracing the genesis of The Hobbit, and The Hobbit, a cornerstone.

Christina Scull & Wayne G. Hammond, renowned for their bibliographical research and editorial work, and notably the Tolkien Companion and Guide, wrote the articles on Mr. Bliss, Farmer Giles of Ham, and Roverandom, (they prepared Roverandom for publication, as well as the 50th anniversary edition of Farmer Giles). Recognized specialists of Tolkien's visual art, we also owe to them the article on Tolkien's Art. An in-depth study of this less well-known feature of the author's creativity and catalogue of his artworks is to be found in their authoritative work J.R.R. Tolkien, Artist and Illustrator, a very complete as well as the Art of The Hobbit.

Tom Shippey is a scholar specialized in medieval studies, Science-Fiction and Fantasy (including J.R.R. Tolkien’s works). He has taught in Oxford, Leeds, and at Saint-Louis University (Emeritus). On J.R.R. Tolkien, he is the author of the book that is a precursor in its domain: The Road to Middle-earth (1982); but also, and among others: J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century (2001), Roots and Branches: Selected Papers on Tolkien (2007). You will find several of his articles on our website on The Monsters and the Critics, J.R.R Tolkien’s scholarly editions and translations , Tolkien & Philology, and an article on The Lord of the Rings.

Arden Smith holds a PhD in Germanic Linguistics (UC Berkeley); he is an editor of Parma Eldalamberon, the journal of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, and former editor of the journal Vinyar Tengwar. He has extensively published on the languages invented by J.R.R. Tolkien (as well as on Esperanto and Volapük). For the website, he wrote the article on J.R.R. Tolkien's invented alphabets and writings systems. He is a member of the Volapük Academy.

Priscilla Tolkien, J.R.R. Tolkien's only daughter is a graduate of Oxford, she taught at Oxford and High Wycombe College. She is the author, with her brother John, of the Tolkien Family Album (1992) and has published articles on her father in various journals. For the website, she wrote the article presenting Leaf by Niggle.

Baillie Tolkien, who holds a BA from the University of Manitoba (Canada), and an MA in English (Oxford), worked as a secretary for J.R.R Tolkien in the 1960's and edited the Father Christmas Letters in 1976, as well as the more complete editions of the same (titled Letters from Father Christmas). We therefore asked her to write the article on this book for our website.

Christopher Tolkien was amongst the very earliest audience for The Hobbit and his father's other "Great Tales", and he followed closely the evolution of the Lord of the Rings, while training as an RAF pilot during the Second World War. He was a Fellow and tutor of Old Norse literature, Anglo-Saxon and Middle-English at New College, Oxford. This profession, and his thesis, an annotated translation of The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise (1960) paved the ground for his study of the unpublished writings of his father. He set himself entirely to this task from 1975 onwards, editing and preparing for publication his father's works: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl and Sir Orfeo (1975), The Silmarillion (1977), Unfinished Tales (1980), The Monsters and the Critics (1983), The History of Middle-earth (1983-1996) ; then The Children of Húrin (2007), The Legend of Sigurd & Gudrún (2009), The Fall of Arthur (2013) and Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary (2014).

For our website, Christopher wrote the exclusive prose summary of the legend of Sigurd and Gudrún. His essay on the making of The Silmarillion is also published here for the first time. He also authorized us to use his Introductions to his latest publications in order to elaborate our articles on Sigurd & Gudrún, The Fall of Arthur, and Beowulf; as well as Unfinished Tales.

Finally, it is the definite case that without his tireless and irreplaceable work on his father's papers over the last forty years, this website would never have seen the light of day; as it could be said for much of later Tolkien studies, as well as the ongoing interest in the works of J.R.R. Tolkien. For this, we thank him here.


The entire catalogue of works by J.R.R. Tolkien, as well as a huge majority of the English critical studies and annotated editions cited here, are published by HarperCollinsPublishers, and we also wish to thank our publishers, and namely David Brawn and Chris Smith for their long-standing dedication to this task.

Dominique Bourgois heads Christian Bourgois éditions (Paris), who are the publishers for all of J.R.R. Tolkien's works in France, starting with The Lord of the Rings in 1972 . We are grateful for the permission to use the discussion with her late husband, Christian Bourgois, and the publishing company's work on the author over the decades.

The French publishers of illustrated childrens' books La Mercurie published the translation of Mr Bliss in 2009.

The Ediciones Minotauro in Barcelona (Spain) have published the entire J.R.R. Tolkien catalogue in Spanish (Castillan).

And we of course thank the many publishers around the world who have shown their interest in the works and have contributed so widely to the author's renown, as well as the many, many translators who have participated over the years!


The original idea of the website, its structure, its organization, and its content was conceived by Adam Tolkien. He coordinated the project, with the abundant and irreplaceable help of: Vincent Ferré, who supervised all translations and followed all the later stages of production of our website, Fabienne Ellena, project coordinator for the first stage of construction, Stéphane Possamai, who assisted in setting up the project at its very start, and designed our first page ever to see the light of the computer screen way back in 2006.

The graphic design was entirely conceived and executed by Natacha Sagit, between Marseille and Brussels. She also created the animated introduction to our mini-site.

The mini-site that was produced to accompany the publication of The Children of Húrin in 2007, and ended up remaining our web-presence for some might say somewhat too long, was developed by the open-source dedicated websolutions company Evolix in Marseille.

The development of our current main website was coordinated and managed by Stephan Obadia, working with Gregory Sibert and Julien Achard. He also managed and executed the final stages of development working from his company developing Prestashop modules, Presta Module, again in collaboration with Julien Achard of Adilis.

Translations between English and French were made by Daniel Lauzon, Christine Laferrière, Delphine Martin, Vincent Ferré, Adam Tolkien, and Rachel Tolkien, except for previously published texts and quotations, where the original translations into French, published by Christian Bourgois éditions were used.

The entire translation of the website into Spanish is the work of Vanessa Richard, again except for previously published texts where we have used the original Castillan translations published by Ediciones Minotauro.

The Elvish translations for our menus (yes, they are real translations!) were elaborated by Arden Smith, Carl Hostetter, and Patrick Wynne, they can be reached at


Finally we wish to thank the man who is no longer here, but whose creative force, whose life, and whose writings are the foundation, the heart, and the life-blood of this entire operation: J.R.R. Tolkien.



Return to home page